Types of Plant Layout: Process, Product, Fixed, Combined and Cellular Layouts - Kickoffall Info Hub

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Sunday, September 29, 2019

Types of Plant Layout: Process, Product, Fixed, Combined and Cellular Layouts

The organization may decide and select the type of plant layouts based on the type of industry, nature of the product, the size of the company and volume of production. The following are the major types of plant layout.
1.  Process layout/ functional layout/ job shop layout.
2. Product layout/ line processing layout/ flow line layout.
3. Fixed-position layout/ static layout.
4. Combination layout/ hybrid layout.
5. Cellular manufacturing layout
1. Process Layout
Process layout is a design for the floor plan of a plant to improve efficiency by arranging machines and equipment according to its function. In process layout, similar operations or similar machinery in each department are assembled together (for example, a drill department, a paint department, etc.) and machines are not arranged according to a particular production sequence. The process layout is also known as functional layout/ job shop layout.
Advantages of Process layout:
  • Lower initial capital investment 
  • The optimum level of degree of machine use.
  • Breakdown of one machine does not affect the entire production process.

Disadvantages of Process Layout
  • More floor space is required
  • Better coordination and planning is required
2. Product Layout
In the product layout, processing equipment and machines are organized according to the sequence of operations of the product where an only a single type of products is produced in an operating area. Product layout is suitable for standardized products which are produced in large quantities. In the product layout, raw material moves from one machine to another machine deviation (i.e. the output of one machine becomes the input of the next machine) in a sequence without any backtracking or It is used for mass production of standardized products. The product layout is also known as line processing layout/ flow line layout.
Advantages of Product layout:
  • Low cost of material handling
  • Lesser inventory and work in progress
  • The continuous flow of work
  • Smooth and continuous operations

Difference between process and product layout
Process layout
Product layout
Customized goods
Standardized goods
Varied path
Direct path
Low/fluctuating demand
High/stable demand
Fixed costs= low, variable cost= high
Fixed costs = high
Variable costs = low
General-purpose equipment
Special purpose equipment
Functional grouping  of activities
Sequential grouping of activities
3. Fixed-position Layout
In a fixed position layout, the major component stays in a fixed location, instead, the machinery, manpower, materials, parts, tools, and other supporting equipment are taken to this location. The main component of the product is in a static position because it is too heavy to move from a place to another, so bringing the necessary tools and equipment’s to workplace along with the manpower is more economical and convenient.  The example of fixed-layout manufacturing is the manufacture of hydraulic and steam turbines, boilers, and ships, etc. Fixed-position layout is also known as the static layout. 
 Independent Production centers of fixed-layout ensure effective planning and loading.
Greater flexibility for change in product design, product mix and production volume.
Disadvantages of Fixed Position Layout:
Fixed Position Layout requires highly skilled manpower
Time-consuming due to movement of machines equipment’s to production center
It require complicate work schedule
4. Combined layout
 The combined layout is a flexible manufacturing layout where the merits of both process & product layout are combined. Flexibility is a very important requirement of factory layout, so If the good features of all types of layouts are connected, a most economical and flexible solution can be obtained. The combined layout is also known as the hybrid layout. 

5. Cellular manufacturing layout
Cellular manufacturing layout is the layout where machines are grouped into cells and the cells function somewhat like a product layout within a larger shop where each cell performs an entire production function from starting to end.

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