Motivation and Theories of Motivation - Kickoffall Info Hub

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Friday, November 1, 2019

Motivation and Theories of Motivation

Motivation refers to the willingness to exert the effort to satisfy individual or organizational needs and goals. Motivation can be viewed as the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
A need is a state of mind that is attractive towards realizing certain outcomes. A tension is created in the mind due to unsatisfied need that stimulates drives within an individual.  An individual's motivation may be inspired by external factors or internal factors. The internal factors may be physiological needs such as hunger, pain, etc. or psychological needs such as fear, love, hate, etc.  The external factors may be peers, family, society, status, lifestyle, cultural, economic, political and legal environments.
Theories of Motivation
1. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow introduced the theory of 'the hierarchy of needs' through his article named “A Theory of Human Motivation” in 1943. Maslow categorized the needs of human beings into five categories in the form of a pyramid starting from physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, self-esteem needs and self-actualization needs. The theory explains that any individual attempts to attain a higher need when lower needs are satisfied. Once a lower-level need is fulfilled, it stops working as a source of motivation and only unsatisfied needs can motivate towards actions.

2. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Clayton P. Alderfer simplified Maslow’s theory in 1969 by classifying hierarchy of needs into three main categories:
  • Existence Needs which include Physiological and Safety needs.
  • Relatedness Needs which include Social needs and Self Esteem Needs
  • Growth Needs which include Self-actualization needs.

3. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Two Factor Theory was introduced by Frederick Herzberg in 1959 which submits that the motivation is mainly affected by two kinds of factors, namely hygiene factors, and motivators.
1) Hygiene factors: they are extrinsic factors whose presence may not cause satisfaction, but its absence causes dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors create dissatisfaction if individuals perceive them as inadequate or inequitable such as salary, job security, and working conditions.
2) Motivators: They are intrinsic factors whose presence triggers motivation, such as a sense of personal growth, achievement, recognition, and responsibility.
While the hygiene factors manly control dissatisfaction, the motivators control satisfaction. 


4. McClelland’s Achievement Need Theory, 1961
David McClelland observed three basic needs that people cultivate and obtain from their life experiences.
Needs for achievement: The person with a strong need for achievement, progress and a sense of accomplishment seeks opportunities for achievement and attempts to achieve challenging goals.
Needs for affiliation: The person who has a high need for affiliation attempts for harmonious relationships with people and acceptance by other people. Individuals with needs for affiliation are more People-oriented than task-oriented.
Needs for power: The person with a high need for power works to achieve power, promotion, and authority. The people with high needs for power can be motivated by achieving higher positions than any other motivator.


Vroom’s The Expectancy theory
The Expectancy theory was developed by Victor H. Vroom in 1964. The theory submits that employee’s motivation is a result of how much an individual desires a reward (Valence), the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (expectancy) and the belief that the performance will provide the reward (Instrumentality).

Valence is the significance and interest of the individual in the reward. Such as Monetary benefits may be a motivator for some people while non-monetary benefits may be the motivator for some people. The valance would be very low towards a non-motivator.
Expectancy is the faith that better efforts will lead to the result. Such as more dedication, acquiring new skills, getting training will lead to achieving the goal.
Instrumentality is the belief and confidence that the reward will be provided after the performance.

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