Learning: The Concept and Types of Learning - Kickoffall Info Hub

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Monday, October 28, 2019

Learning: The Concept and Types of Learning

The learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. The learning may be from immediate experience or from repeated experiences. The major types of learning are:
1. Non-associative learning
Non-associative learning is when the permanent change happens in the response to a single stimulus because of repetitive contact with that stimulus. Habituation and sensitization are two types of non-associative learning.
Habituation refers to the learning process in which the response to a stimulus decreases when the stimulus is repeated. Example: Birds stay off the field afraid of the presence of scarecrow; later due to the repeated presence of scarecrow, the fear goes and birds return to the field. 
Sensitization refers to the learning process in which the response to a stimulus increases after repeated contact. Example: the continuous rub on any specific part of the body causes increased pain. While habituation refers to a decline in the probability of responding to repeated stimuli, the sensitization refers to an increase in the probability of responding to repeated stimuli.
2. Associative learning
Associative learning refers to the learning process by which a person or animal learns an association between two stimuli or events. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are two types of associative learning.
Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning which is also known as instrumental conditioning refers to a learning process in which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. Example: the strength of absenteeism behavior is modified by the level of a salary cut. The operant conditioning theory was initially studied by Edward Thorndike and B.F. Skinner.
Skinner's Rat-box of Operant conditioning Experiment


Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell). Classical conditioning theory was first studied in detail by the Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov through experiments with dogs and published in 1897.

3. Active learning
Active learning refers to the process of taking self-control of own learning experience by engaging with the learning instruments and collaborating with others.

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